Even more curious than this “transcendental turn” itself is the argumentation Spivak musters to support her declaration, against all appearances, that the subaltern cannot speak. Her essay “Can the Subaltern Speak?” (which exists in several forms-I’ll be examining the longest version, which appears in Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture) displays a dazzling array of tactical devices designed to ward off or pre-emptively neutralize the attacks of critics. Archives "Archipel des Revues européennes" . How does this article align with those of other critics we have read, such Luttes et subjectivité, Mineure 38. Speak Questions and Answers. Subjectivation du Net : postmédia, réseaux, mise en commun, Mineure 21. In "Can the Subaltern Speak?" "Can the Subaltern Speak?" Florence Boos' Faculty Page >>, << Florence Boos' Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak's original essay "Can the Subaltern Speak?" The subaltern enters official and intellectual discourse only rarely and usually through the mediating commentary of someone more at home in those discourses. essay "Can the Subaltern Speak?" Empire et "colonialité" du pouvoir. Veiller à la biodiversité avec les ultramarins, 66. Of course, one might be tempted to argue that it is not only possible but inevitable that Foucault would contradict himself not only in interviews but in his most important works, unless that is, we assign to Foucault the position of Absolute subject, whose writing, despite the appearance of contradiction, possesses total coherence and homogeneity. Majeure 27. (2204; she aligns herself with anti-positivist feminists and Western theorists, Septembre 1994: Les coordinations de travailleurs dans la confrontation sociale, Hors-champ 15. In fact, it would appear that Derrida’s argument leads in precisely the opposite direction. Il a publié notamment : Louis Althusser (London: Palgrave, 2002) ; Bodies, Masses, Power: Spinoza and his Contemporaries, (London: Verso, Spring 1999) ; The Unthinkable Swift: The Spontaneous Philosophy of a Church of England Man, (London: Verso, 1994). Multitudes 50, numéro spécial soulèvement (automne 2012), Majeure 52. Le matérialisme aléatoire et le « dernier Althusser », Majeure 22. Micropolitique de l'habitat non-ordinaire, Majeure 39. Study Questions Index Art contemporain : la recherche du dehors. What forms of “subjugated knowledge” concern her? Carrying a bomb/looking for a bomb. Villes : fractures et mouvements. Icônes 67. rests on an obvious paradox. What does she see as a message to be learned, and who have ignored it? (2204-2205). What final ironies does she note in her family’s history? Capitalisme cognitif, développement, normativité. Post-scriptum autour de quelques problèmes, Une expérience politique d'un type nouveau, Juin 1994: Amérique latine démocratie et exclusion, Globalisation et transformations socio-économiques. Melinda Sordino is the protagonist in the novel, Speak. In what ways, if any, can the subaltern speak? Euro: les illusions souveraines, Mineure 61. Can the Subaltern Speak” Response Spivak’s article, while difficult to get through, brings up many interesting points.She ultimately comes to the conclusion that the subaltern cannot speak.Yet in coming to that conclusion she explains reasons why they cannot. Les complications de la présence, Mineure 62. is probably the most influential work in the field of postcolonial theory.1 Its impact has spanned "across the disciplines of history, anthropology, sociology, literary studies, women studies and cultural studies, amongst others. (2205-2206), What responses to her article does Spivak consider have made useful contributions? Printemps 2007, Une voix d’universitaire chinois – Perceptions de l’intérieur, La “lutte contre le racisme” illusions et désillusions, Droits de l’homme , mondialisation et droits humains à venir, Mishima Yukio: Everyone’s Favorite Homofascist. Nouvelles énonciations collectives, Mineure 56. Early into the essay, Spivak asks the question, “Are those who act and struggle mute, as opposed to those who act and speak?” (70). Edition virtuelle de la mineure Traduire Deleuze, 02. 2. It hardly needs to be said that few philosophers have openly endorsed such a position, just as few philosophers have ever written books with the phrase “self-criticism in the title. How do the closing remarks reflect on the subject of the essay? ", "Quelle résistance pour les multitudes en Irak ? L'intermittence dans tous ses états, Mineure 17. What does Spivak see as the attitude of some French theorists of the time toward Migrants/Habitants : urbanités en construction, Majeure 63. L'espace public oppositionnel, Majeure 40. To grant philosophy a material, practical existence in this way is to admit that “misinterpretations” are not subjective errors (whether malicious or benign) in the minds of one’s readers but are rather the objective effects of one’s own work, not of course of the intentions behind it but in its real existence and in its unforeseeable encounters with other works, and other forces. Mineure 10. Denotations. Vilém Flusser : vivre dans les programmes, Mineure 72. Puebla is located about 120 km south of Mexico City. Reading the required materials is MANDATORY for participation in this discussion. Cultivons nos intelligences artificielles, Majeure 77. introduced questions of gender and sexual difference into analyses of representation and offering a profound critique of both subaltern history and radical Western philosophy. It is as if there exists a simple dilemma before us: either we argue that the subaltern can indeed speak, in which case according to one’s perspective we have either brought agency back in or, in contrast, lapsed into essentialism; or we argue with Spivak that the subaltern cannot speak, which means for some that we have silenced the oppressed, which for others we have refused the myth of the originary subject. Who better than the translator of Of Grammatology to remind us of the relevance of Derrida’s critique of Western logocentrism and phonocentrism to political life and to show the utter folly, if not the disingenuousness, of Foucault’s call to publish the writings of prisoners as an integral part of the movement against the prisons, or the attempt to set up and archive for the workers’ voices as part of the project of proletarian self-emancipation (a project which Spivak has already criticized in categorical terms)? Féminismes, queer, multitudes, Mineure 12. (2198). Had she not carried out this substitution, her essay would have been far less effective; for the subaltern or the masses never cease to resist and rebel even as they are constituted by these actions as the masses. Extension de la mineure Fernand Deligny, 24. Ecologie de l’esprit/économie de l’esprit, 02. A theory of representation points, on the one In fact, if we examine the essay closely we can go even further to say that Spivak has elevated the contradiction between the First World and Third World as opposing blocs to a position of strategic and political dominance, as if the working classes in the West (and it appears that only the West has working classes-from the essay one would think that India was a primarily peasant society rather than one of the largest manufacturing economies in the world) is structurally allied more closely to its own bourgeoisie than to those forces traditionally regarded as its allies in the nations outside of Europe, North American and Japan: workers, rural laborers, landless peasants, etc. La sensibilité urbaine des images filmiques. Icônes 76. Guerres et paix dans l’empire, Majeure 12. What is revealed in her account of her relative Bhubaneswari’s suicide? A key theme of Gayatri Spivak's work is agency: the ability of the individual to make their own decisions. What Foucault and Deleuze, First World intellectuals, share with the subaltern studies group is the notion no less dangerous for being naive that “the oppressed (…) can speak and know their conditions.” And thus to the general plague of essentialism which in truly internationalist fashion circulates freely between the First and Third Worlds, Spivak proposes the antidote of a single question: can the subaltern speak? she say that members of an ethnic group are not necessarily subalterns? Finance, rente et travail dans le capitalisme cognitif, Majeure 33. The first, and perhaps the most important, is her intervention in the debates surrounding the field of Subaltern Studies as it existed in India in the early eighties, particularly as represented by the work of Ranajit Guha. Professeur de lettres et de philosophie à l'Occidental College de Los Angeles. Réfugiés et prisonniers politiques des " années de plomb". Mineure 19. The term has been adopted to postcolornial studies from the work of the Subaltern Studies Group, a team of historians, who aimed to promote systematic discussion of subaltern themes in South Asian studies. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Edition virtuelle des Liens (hommage à Giselle Donnard), Majeure 30. Produire des biens et des services sans but lucratif, 66. 2. page numbers are from the Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism, << Florence Boos' Thus, the idea of international alliances between the working classes East and West is for Spivak only a relic of so-called orthodox Marxism, it is even more menacingly a component of the strategy to maintain the domination of First World over Third World by subordinating the interests of the subaltern to those of their privileged counterparts. (1988) by Gayatri Spivak relates to the manner in which western cultures investigate other cultures. Gauches en Europe. Its difficulty is also a consequence of the fact that Spivak carries on several struggles simultaneously. Mettre fin aux régressions identitaires ordonnées au nom des femmes, 66. Du contrôle à la sousveillance, Mineure 40. Archives débats sur la liste " Multitudes – Infos", "Opportunisme politique du monde de l'art? She discourages and dismantles western centres and challenges there over history and prejudice. We, Albina Tortbayeva and Shola Ejegi, are MA students at UCL in Education and International Development, who had the pleasure of co-facilitating the launch of the decolonisation discussion café and can be reached at Albina and Shola for any questions or inquires related to this blog post or just to connect and network. Pour une nouvelle critique institutionnelle, Edition virtuelle et compléments de Multitudes 29, 01. Erwin Wurm, Majeure 13. under the influence of which discourses), whether and how (filtered by which patterns of perception and structures of … Aux origines de l'Apartheid, Majeure 15. the subaltern and reaffirm colonial differences between the “civilized” West and the “barbarian” East. De l ’ esprit/économie de l ’ improvisation collective, Majeure 64 difference into analyses of and! Universel et une taxe pollen, 66 at home in those discourses la liste `` Multitudes – ''. Practice, leading her to reflect on the putative subject or non-subject of speech: the subaltern Speak through! Deconstructionist ” Macaulay wished British education in India to have Spivak see as a message to be told of... Spivak offers yet a further twist on whether the subaltern Speak? lie in such. And challenges there over history and prejudice Multitudes 24 1986 ), Majeure 64 the limitations of “ subjugated ”! That traverse these fields of practice that collectivities are constituted Majeure 42 sexual. 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