Operant Conditioning: Operant Conditioning takes place with the involvement of two major concepts including reinforcements and punishments following the behavior which will result in either an increase or decrease of the acquired behavior. These effects are known as _. He then began to say the letters more and more softly, with the result that she eventually said them on her own without any prompt from him. In behavioral _, a change in the rate of _ on one component of a multiple schedule is followed by a(n) (similar/opposite) _ change in the rate of _ on the other component. In addition to being used to train people and animals to engage in new behaviours, operant conditioning can also be used to help people eliminate unwanted ones. Operant conditioning holds that human learning is more complex than the model developed by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and involves human intelligence and will operating (thus its name) on its environment rather than being a slave to stimuli. Laura tried very hard to get Trish to talk to her but quickly gave up. A stimulus that signals that a response will be punished is called a _ for punishment. Laura did not understand the reason for Trish's silence and initially (increased/decreased) _ the frequency with which she attempted to talk to Laura. Because of this punishment, the child forms an association between the action (throwing) and a result (getting punished). The basic principles involve the manipulation of consequences which follow behavior in order to modify behavior. Behavioral Contingencies . Learning from the consequences of behavior. On a _ schedule (abbreviated _), the reinforcer is delivered following a fixed interval of time, regardless of the organism's behavior. His famous formulation of Law … STUDY. Interestingly, she subsequently became (more/less) _ interested in other activities, including her job. Clarify what positive and negative mean. -A rat was rewarded with a food pellet for pressing a lever. Client difficulties are sometimes the result of positively or negatively reinforced responses, and may respond to a process whereby different reinforcement schedules are used to shape them. Undergraduate psychology quiz on the two main forms of conditioning, operant and classical conditioning. The food pellets were delivered for the first response after 14, 5, 9, and 20 seconds. One problem with spanking a child for being noisy while playing is that he might not only stop being noisy but also stop _. immediately; consistent; positively reinforce. A _ schedule generally produces a high rate of response with a short pause following the attainment of each reinforcer. Operant conditioning, sometimes called instrumental learning, was first extensively studied by Edward L. Thorndike (1874–1949), who observed the behavior of cats trying to escape from home-made puzzle boxes. C) observational learning. Stampfl demonstrated that a critical factor in phobic conditioning is the possibility of making an (early/late) _ avoidance response, thereby minimizing the amount of _ involved in avoiding the feared event. Match. In these examples, the teacher is using reinforcement to strengthen the hand-raising behavior and punishment to weaken the talking out of turn behavior. Operant Conditioning Reading Quiz 1. Upgrade to remove ads. -Knowledge certain period of time must pass. -A rat was rewarded with food pellets for pressing a lever. For example, in an experimental demonstration of avoidance that involves a tone and an aversive air blast, the rat will likely require (one/more than one) _ conditioning trial. Thank you for being Super. This is an example of an _ schedule of reinforcement (one that is particularly likely to suffer from r_ s_). In an S-R paradigm, for the brother, the punch is the: Likeliness of choosing/avoiding behaviours, Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response, -Shaping complex 'chains' or sequences of behaviour, Generalized (conditioned, secondary) reinforcers, -When/how we reinforce behaviour > Impact on strength/rate of response, Continuous reinforcement schedule (CRF or FR1), -FIXED INTERVAL reinforcement schedule (FI). (A) during, (B) before, (C) after, (D) none of the preceding. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The child may also become _ as a result of the spanking, which might later be directed to his little brother or sister. For example, a child may be told they will lose recess privileges if they talk out of turn in class. all of his troops climb out of the trench and start running toward the enemy. The dog's behavior of baring his teeth and growling served to (positively/negatively) _ (punish/reinforce) _ Beth's behavior of trying to pull his tail. A pigeon pecks a green key on a VI 60-sec schedule, which results in the insertion of a foot-treadle into the chamber. This quiz is incomplete! Long-term effects? Of the four basic schedules, Jason's behavior of asking Neem for a date is most likely on a _ schedule of reinforcement. _, Classically conditioned behaviors are said to be _ by stimuli; operant behaviors are. Learn. When Renee was in elementary school, she was cruelly teased by a classmate each recess. Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning which focuses on consequences that follow a response or behavior that we make (anything we do, say, or think/feel) and whether it makes a behavior more or less likely to occur. She may also become clinically _. If it only sometimes receives a treat when it begs for one, its begging is being maintained on a(n) _ schedule of reinforcement. This method is based on Skinner's three-term contingency and it differs from the method of The theoretical difficulty with avoidance behavior, as opposed to escape behavior, is that the individual is moving from one (aversive/. The gradual development of new operant behavior through reinforcement of _ to that behavior is called _. Operant responses are sometimes simply called _. Sometimes, operant conditioning involves punishment. This is an example of what type of contingency? An event is a reinforcer if it _ a behavior and the future probability of that behavior _. According to the _ hypothesis, however, this is because exposures to the aversive _ are too brief for _ to take place. (A) VI 20-sec, (B) VT 20-sec, (C) FT 20-sec, (D) FI 20-sec, (E) none of the preceding. Is it play or aggression? According to the _ approach, Anna's ideal schedule provides the _ amount of overall reinforcement that can be obtained from those activities. NEW! chuah_yi_ning. Copy and Edit. Operant Conditioning. Major advantages of using the sound of a click for shaping are that the click can be delivered _ and the animal is unlikely to _ upon it. She also finds that when the flag is not being held up, the children are now relatively (quiet /noisy) _, insofar as the behavior of running around is now under _. For Steven, the act of reading fairy tales is functioning as what type of reinforcer? In school: learning - operant conditioning ( or substracted ) ; presented ( instrumental... About her, Trish stopped talking to her the abbreviation operant conditioning quizlet _ schedule abbreviated... Specific and use the abbreviation ) _ interested in other words, she no longer tries to bubble. Approach, Anna 's ideal schedule provides the _ amount of overall reinforcement that can be considered example! 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